By allaboutfa3909812, Oct 16 2019 08:38PM
What counselors can do to help clients stop smoking
By Bethany Bray November 29, 2016
Nearly half of the cigarettes consumed in the United States are smoked by people dealing with a mental illness, according to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. The federal agency says that rates of smoking are disproportionately higher — a little more than double — among those diagnosed with mental illness than among the general population.
It is widely accepted that the nicotine in cigarettes is highly addictive, but people struggling with mental health issues often turn to cigarettes for reasons that go beyond their addictive qualities. For instance, many people smoke as a coping mechanism to deal with difficult feelings. In addition, despite their negative health effects, cigarettes are still largely viewed by society as an “acceptable” addiction in comparison with other substances.
The reality? “[Smoking] is a devastating addiction and a difficult one to quit,” says Gary Tedeschi, clinical director of the California Smokers’ Helpline and a member of the American Counseling Association. “This clientele [those with mental illness], in particular, need the encouragement and support to go forward [with quitting], and many of them want to, despite what people might think. … To let people continue to smoke because ‘it’s not as bad’ [as other addictions] is missing a really important chance to help someone get healthier.”
To drive home his point, Tedeschi points to a statistic from the 2014 release of The Health Consequences of Smoking - 50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General, which says that more than 480,000 people die annually in the United States from causes related to cigarette smoking. Close to half of the Americans who die from tobacco-related causes are people with mental illness or substance abuse disorders, Tedeschi says.
In Tedeschi’s view, the statistics connecting smoking to mental illness are “so obvious that it’s almost an ethical and moral responsibility to help this population quit.”
Part of a package
Ford Brooks, a licensed professional counselor (LPC) and professor at Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania, says he has never had a client walk in to therapy with a primary presentation of wanting to stop smoking.
Tobacco use “is always part of a package” that clients will bring to counseling, Brooks says. In his experience as an addictions counselor, smoking is often piled on top of a laundry list of other challenges that may include alcohol or drug addiction, depression, a marriage that is on the rocks, the loss of a job or financial trouble.
“They’re on the train to destruction, and their nicotine use, in their minds, is on the back end [in terms of importance]. … Is the smoking related to what their presenting issue is? Chances are it probably connects somehow. Don’t be afraid to bring it up,” advises Brooks, co-author of the book A Contemporary Approach to Substance Use Disorders and Addiction Counseling, which is published by ACA.
Tedeschi, a national certified counselor and licensed psychologist, notes that many people who call the California Smokers’ Helpline are struggling with comorbid conditions or mental illness in addition to tobacco use. The phone line is one in a system of “quitlines” operating in each of the 50 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and Guam.
For clients struggling with mental health issues, smoking may serve as a coping mechanism to deal with uncomfortable feelings or anxiety, Brooks says. Years ago, when smoking was still allowed in many indoor spaces, Brooks led group counseling in detox, outpatient and inpatient addictions facilities. “When powerful emotions would come up in group, [clients] would fire up cigarette after cigarette to deal with those feelings and quell anxiety,” he recalls.
With this in mind, counselors should help prepare clients for the irritability, anxiety and other uncomfortable feelings they are likely to experience when they attempt to stop smoking cigarettes. “Talk about what it will feel like to be really anxious and not smoke” and how they plan to handle those feelings, Brooks says. “… If a person has anxiety or depression and stops smoking, what initially happens is they could get more depressed or more anxious without nicotine to quell the emotion.”
The counselors interviewed for this article urge practitioners to ask every single client about their tobacco use during the intake process, no matter what the person’s presenting problem is. “If you’re helping them to get mentally and physically healthier, this [quitting smoking] is a very critical part of the overall wellness picture,” Tedeschi says.
Counselors shouldn’t be afraid to ask their clients whether they smoke, says Greg Harms, a licensed clinical professional counselor (LCPC), certified addictions specialist, and alcohol and drug counselor with a private practice in Chicago. “It can feel weird the first couple of times, especially if this is not your area of expertise,” says Harms, who does postdoctoral work at Diamond Headache Clinic in Chicago, an inpatient unit for people with chronic headaches. “A lot of times, clients have heard all the bad stuff about smoking. A lot of them, deep down, they know they’d be better off if they were to quit smoking. They may have failed so many times in the past that they’re discouraged. They might be hesitant to bring it up because this is a counselor and not the [medical] doctor. If you bring it up, more often than not, the client is going to engage with that. Even if they don’t, if it’s not the right time for them, you’ve planted that seed. … It might come to fruition down the road. I’d much rather plant that seed than not say anything at all.”
When Harms was a counseling graduate student, he completed an internship at the Anixter Center, a Chicago agency that serves clients with disabilities. While there, he worked as part of a grant-funded program for smoking cessation for people with disabilities that was spearheaded by the American Lung Association. He also presented a session titled “Integrating Smoking Cessation Treatment with Mental Health Services” at ACA’s 2013 Conference & Expo in Cincinnati.
If a client doesn’t feel ready to begin the quitting process right away, the counselor can put the topic on the back burner to address again once the client has made progress on other presenting problems or has forged a stronger relationship with the practitioner. However, that shouldn’t mean that the topic is off the table completely, Harms says. A counselor should talk regularly with the client about quitting smoking, even if it’s only for a few minutes each session.
“Give them a little nugget of information [about quitting], and then you can focus on what they’re there for,” Harms says. “Help them find ways to deal with their presenting problem, then they’ll trust you. Once they’re in a better place, revisit [the idea of quitting]. We don’t have to address it and get their buy-in during the first session. It would be fantastic if that was the case, but it’s OK if it’s not. In most cases, time is on our side to develop the relationship, plant the seed and revisit it. If the client is not ready, we can harp on [quitting] all we want, [but] it won’t do anything.”
“You really have to take the client’s lead and go at the pace they’re willing,” Harms continues. “Don’t push. Respect their decision. Even if they’re not ready for [quitting], let them know that [you’re] there for them and respect their autonomy to make that decision.”
Positioned to help
Counselors are particularly suited to help clients quit smoking because the profession has an array of tools focused on behavior modification, Tedeschi asserts. Motivational interviewing, cognitive behavior therapy, acceptance and commitment therapy, and other models can be useful in helping clients stop smoking. But techniques from any therapy model that counselors are comfortable using can be adapted to help clients navigate the challenge of quitting, Tedeschi says, especially when combined appropriately with pharmacologic aids approved by the Food and Drug Administration.
“We’re in the business of helping people change. The principles that a counselor uses to help someone understand an issue and begin to make steps toward change apply to smoking cessation as well,” Tedeschi says. “Counselors help people understand their motivation to change and help them come up with a plan to change.”
Harms agrees, noting that in most cases, a counselor will have significantly more time with a client than a medical professional will. Instead of “hitting [the client] over the head” with the dangers of smoking, Harms says, a counselor can afford to focus on the positive, use a strengths-based approach and build on what the client wants to work toward rather than what he or she wants to avoid.
“We [counselors] are so strengths-based. It’s our natural inclination to tell the client, ‘Yes, you’re strong enough to do this,’ rather than [taking] a scare approach,” Harms says. “We can find their strength and have that unconditional positive regard for them, regardless of how long it’s taking. We have the patience to sit with a client as they’re going through [quitting]. We can build that relationship and be a resource.”
Tedeschi recommends that counselors use the “five A’s” to discuss smoking with clients. In this approach, a practitioner should:
• Ask each client about his or her tobacco use
• Advise all tobacco users to quit
• Assess whether the client is ready to quit
• Assist the client with a quit plan
• Arrange follow-up contact to mitigate relapse
Each of these steps is important, but providing support and follow-up as the client begins to quit is particularly critical, Tedeschi says.
“The first week of quitting is the hardest. If [a counselor] waits for a week to talk to the client, you could lose about 60 percent of people back to relapse,” he says. “If someone is able to quit for two weeks, their risk of relapse drops dramatically.”
If clients resist the idea of quitting or do not feel ready to quit entirely, Tedeschi suggests that counselors work with them to stop smoking for one day or even just an afternoon. During this time, have clients monitor how they felt: How was their anxiety level? What were their cravings like? This technique can introduce the idea of stopping and prepare clients for the quitting process, he says.
Brooks recommends using motivational interviewing to help clients make the life change to quit smoking. “Nicotine is a drug, and it’s no different than if [clients] were to say they want to stop drinking. Work with their motivation to identify what they can possibly do for that,” he says.
Part of the quitting process involves clients going through an identity shift, Tedeschi notes. Clients can be behaving as nonsmokers — abstaining from cigarettes — long before they make the mental leap that they are no longer smokers, he says. It is important for clients to make that mental shift from “a smoker who is not smoking” to a “nonsmoker,” Tedeschi says. Counselors need to work with these clients to identify as and accept the nonsmoker label. “As long as someone calls [himself or herself] a smoker, they will be open to turning back to cigarettes,” he explains.